Breaking News from Kurdistan, Europe and Middle East
Iran sentences five activists to jail terms, says lawyer
Kurdistan Human Rights - 2021-08-05 02:01
The Islamic Revolutionary Court of Tehran has sentenced Kurdish activist Somayyeh Kargar and four others to heavy prison sentences for “managing illegal groups” and “propaganda against the state”. Lawyer Mostafa Nili announced on his Twitter account that ...
Islamic State Group Smuggling Boys to Desert Training Camps | Voice of America - English
Voanews - 2021-08-04 20:05
How did the SDF see its future in its annual meeting?
NPA Syria - 2021-08-04 17:15
HASAKAH, Syria (North Press) – The Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) have linked the final defeat of the Islamic State (ISIS) to the support for stabilization projects and rehabilitation of infrastructure in the region, by supporting the Autonomous Administr ...
Turkish police raid office of Iraqi Kurdish Islamic ‘fake’ healer Ali Kalak
E-Kurd - 2021-08-04 13:15
ISTANBUL,— Turkish security forces in Istanbul province’s Basaksehir district raided the office of a controversial Kurdish mullah from Iraqi Kurdistan Region on Tuesday, Turkish media has reported. Mullah Ali Kalak, mostly known as Mala Ali Kurdistani, ha ...
Islamic fatwa forbids ‘unnecessary’ plastic surgery in Iraqi Kurdistan
E-Kurd - 2021-08-04 13:15
HEWLÊR-Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan region,— A recent fatwa forbidding “unnecessary” plastic surgery has drawn mixed reaction among doctors, therapists and members of the public in Iraqi Kurdistan Region, where 300,000 procedures are said to be done every year. ...
Syria’s Hasakah residents condemn genocide of Yezidis by ISIS
NPA Syria - 2021-08-03 21:34
HASAKAH, Syria (North Press) – On Tuesday, dozens of residents of the city of Hasakah, northeast Syria, denounced the ethnic genocide carried out by the Islamic State (ISIS) against the Yezidis of Shingal (Sinjar) in August 2014. This came in a march orga ...
Impunity for Repatriated Islamic State Members - Lawfare
Lawfareblog - 2021-08-03 21:27
Large amounts of mines of ISIS found in Syria’s Kobani
NPA Syria - 2021-08-03 20:59
KOBANI, Syria (North Press) – On Tuesday, the Ramco Mine Action Organization removed 51 shells and war remnants of the Islamic State (ISIS) in the western countryside of Kobani, north Syria. RAMCO is a non-governmental organization that works in coordinat ...
KON-MED calls for strong participation in Shengal actions
ANF - 2021-08-03 11:11
On the anniversary of the Islamic State genocide in the southern Kurdish Shengal region, the Kurdish umbrella organization KON-MED is calling for a strong participation in protests and demonstrations. ...
Orumiyeh court sentences Kurdish religious activist to jail term
Kurdistan Human Rights - 2021-08-03 02:00
The Islamic Revolutionary Court of Orumiyeh has sentenced Kurdish Sunni activist Jafar Osafi to seven years and six months in prison for “membership in religious extremist groups”. On 31 July, the court officially notified the activist detained in Orumiye ...
7 Years After Islamic State Genocide, Yazidi Survivors Still Seeking Justice | Voice of America - English
Voanews - 2021-08-03 00:35
Albania repatriates Islamic State women, children despite controversy - Vatican News
Vaticannews - 2021-08-02 12:38
Co-chair of the Euphrates Region Legislative Assembly says Islamic State still a threat
ANF - 2021-08-02 12:35
Hisên El-Shex, co-chair of the Euphrates Region Legislative Assembly, said that ISIS continues to be a threat and emphasized that an international court should be established in Northern and Eastern Syria to prosecute ISIS mercenaries. ...
Syria’s Autonomous Administration should be supported against ISIS: Mazloum Abdi
NPA Syria - 2021-08-01 12:57
QAMISHLI, Syria (North Press) – On Sunday, Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) Commander-in-Chief Mazloum Abdi said that the Islamic State (ISIS) still forms a major threat, and that projects of the Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria (AANES) sho ...
More women prisoners linked to Islamic State released from al-Hol camp - Al-Monitor: The Pulse of the Middle East
Al Monitor - 2021-07-31 22:11
Albania repatriates 19 people from Syria’s AANES
NPA Syria - 2021-07-31 21:44
QAMISHLI, Syria (North Press) – On Saturday, the Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria (AANES) handed over 19 members of Islamic State (ISIS) families of Albanian nationality to an official delegation from the country. The Albanian ambassador ...
IRGC forces Syrian recruits to pledge to fight inside, outside Syria
NPA Syria - 2021-07-31 21:08
DAMASCUS, Syria (North Press) – Wa’il (a pseudonym), a reservist recruit in the Syrian government forces who was sent five years ago to fight in ranks of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) in Palmyra, was surprised at the request of his Iranian ...
President Nechirvan Barzani offers condolences to Salahuddin Bahauddin
Presidency of Kurdistan - 2021-07-31 01:05
Erbil, Kurdistan Region, July 30, 2021 In a phone call on Friday, Kurdistan Region President Nechirvan Barzani offered his condolences to Mr. Salahuddin Bahauddin, the Secretary General of the Kurdistan Islamic Union on the passing of his sister Ms. Hamid ...
De ce e Irakul atat de disperat sa recucereasca barajul de la Mosul. Irakienii, americanii si kurzii contra Statului Islamic - Stirileprotv.ro
Stirileprotv - 2021-07-30 06:10
Iran: IRGC clashes with Kurdish party, deploys forces near villages in Bukan
Kurdistan Human Rights - 2021-07-29 02:03
The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) has stationed forces in many regions near the villages in Bukan, West Azerbaijan province, after clashes broke out between the IRGC and a Kurdish party near Elmabad village on 24 July. Reportedly, the IRGC has ...
IRGC intelligence forces detain at least 10 Kurdish activists in Bukan
Kurdistan Human Rights - 2021-07-29 02:03
The Intelligence Organisation of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) has detained at least 10 Kurdish activists in Bukan, West Azerbaijan province, since 24 July. They have taken the detainees to the detention centre of the Intelligence Organisat ...
US to keep 900 troops in Syria to support SDF against ISIS
NPA Syria - 2021-07-28 14:17
QAMISHLI, Syria (North Press) – Biden’s administration will keep 900 troops in Syria and will continue supporting the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) against Islamic State (ISIS) “This has succeeded and this what we will continue,” an American official sai ...
SDF, Global Coalition arrest ISIS militants in Syria’s Deir ez-Zor
NPA Syria - 2021-07-27 13:39
DEIR EZ-ZOR, Syria (North Press) – On Tuesday, the Syrian Democratic Forces and Global Coalition arrested militants of the Islamic State (ISIS) during a joint operation in a town east of Deir ez-Zor, east Syria. With the aerial and ground support of theGl ...
SDF arrest ISIS militants in Syria’s Deir ez-Zor
NPA Syria - 2021-07-26 11:47
DEIR EZ-ZOR, Syria (North Press) – On Sunday, Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) arrested two militants of the Islamic State (ISIS) in a town east Deir ez-Zor, east Syria. During a security campaign against ISIS sleeper cells, the SDF stormed a house near Str ...
Iraq announces arrests in deadly Baghdad-area bombing claimed by Islamic State group
France24 - 2021-07-25 12:28
Martyrs' families condemn desecration of graves in Afrin
ANF - 2021-07-23 10:29
The families of the martyrs condemned the desecration of a cemetery in Afrin and noted that the Turkish state uses the same methods used by the Islamic State. ...
US boy forced to threaten Trump in Islamic State video shares his ordeal after homecoming
Tribune - 2021-07-23 02:36
Zahra Ayubi, Gendered Morality: Classical Islamic Ethics of the Self, Family, and Society (New Texts Out Now)
Jadaliyya - 2021-07-20 15:05
"IS Governor" of Baghdad arrested
ANF - 2021-07-19 18:33
Iraqi security forces have arrested a member of the leadership of the "Islamic State" terrorist militia. ...
Inside the hunt for Isis leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi | Islamic State | The Guardian
The Guardian - 2021-07-18 08:11
Kosovo Repatriates 11 Citizens From Islamic State Camps In Syria
Rferl - 2021-07-18 07:04
Turkey may be changing its Islamic State strategy – analyst | Ahval
Ahvalnews - 2021-07-16 19:38
SDF arrests prominent ISIS member in Syria’s Deir ez-Zor
NPA Syria - 2021-07-16 15:56
DEIR EZ-ZOR, Syria (North Press) – The Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), with the support of the Global Coalition, arrested two members of the Islamic State (ISIS), one of whom is an ISIS prominent leader, during a security operation Thursday. A third membe ...
Belgian parliament recognises Yazidi genocide
ANF - 2021-07-16 10:08
The Belgian parliament unanimously recognized the Islamic State massacre of the Yazidi in 2014 as a genocide. ...
Turkey arrests Islamic imams preaching sermons in Kurdish language
E-Kurd - 2021-07-11 21:56
DIYARBAKIR-AMED, Turkey Kurdistan,— Nine imams have been arrested for preaching sermons in Kurdish, pro-Kurdish Mezopotamya news and Roj news reported on Sunday. 28 imams including DİAY-DER head Ekrem Baran were detained as part of a police operation carr ...
AANES rebuilds two schools in Syria’s Hasakah countryside
NPA Syria - 2021-07-11 14:57
HASAKAH, Syria (North Press) – An educational official in Markada district, south of Hasakah, northeastern Syria, said on Sunday that they had begun rebuilding two schools that were destroyed during the battles with the Islamic State (ISIS) in 2017. Maysi ...
Iranian-backed factions deploy rockets in Syria’s Deir ez-Zor
NPA Syria - 2021-07-11 14:28
DERI EZ-ZOR, Syria (North Press) – On Sunday, a military source said that factions backed by the Iranian Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC) started to deploy short-range rockets and medium-range artillery within their positions and military headqua ...
France’s Lyon to name square after murdered prominent Syrian Kurdish politician Hevrin Khalaf
E-Kurd - 2021-07-10 12:01
LYON,— The French city of Lyon will name a square after Syrian Kurdish politician Hevrin Khalaf, killed by Turkish-backed Syrian mercenary Islamic fighters in 2019, the mayor’s office said. A square in the city’s 7th arrondissement will be named “Place He ...
British Citizen Fighting Islamic State With Kurds Killed in Syria - WSJ
WSJ - 2021-07-09 09:57
U.S. Considers Emergency Aid for Peshmerga in Islamic State Fight - WSJ
WSJ - 2021-07-09 09:57
Islamic State Releases Over 200 Yazidi Hostages in Iraq - WSJ
WSJ - 2021-07-08 21:37
Syrian Kurdish forces say thwarted drone attacks near US-led coalition base
E-Kurd - 2021-07-08 20:10
BEIRUT,— Kurdish forces in Syrian Kurdistan (Rojava) said they repelled drone attacks Wednesday near a major base of the US-led coalition battling Islamic State group remnants, in the second such attack in days. “Our frontline forces against IS and coalit ...
Islamic State ‘Beatles’ Fighters Brought to U.S. to Face Charges - WSJ
WSJ - 2021-07-08 17:56
'10,000 Islamic State fighters still in Syria, situation untenable': Blinken | World News - Hindustan Times
Hindustantimes - 2021-07-08 01:05
Syrian Kurds Transfer 20 Children To Russia For Repatriation From Islamic State Camps
Rferl - 2021-07-08 01:05
Syria Kurds Say Thwarted Drone Attacks Near Coalition Base
The Defense Post - 2021-07-07 20:34
Syrian Kurdish forces said they repelled drone attacks Wednesday near a major base of the US-led coalition battling Islamic State group remnants, in the second such attack in days. ...
Hillary, Chelsea Clinton to produce series about all-women militias that fought Islamic State | TheHill
Thehill - 2021-07-07 12:10
Netherlands, Belgium officially recognize Islamic State killing of Yazidis as genocide
E-Kurd - 2021-07-07 10:51
THE HAGUE,— The Dutch Parliament has recognized Islamic State (ISIS) crimes against the Yazidis as genocide, almost seven years after the group attacked northern Iraq in 2014, an NGO advocating for the ethnoreligious minority said on Tuesday. The motion w ...
Rehana, femeia kurdă care luptă împotriva Statului Islamic, NU a fost DECAPITATĂ GALERIE FOTO
Romaniatv - 2021-07-06 18:12
8 murders in Syria camp for Islamic State relatives in June: Kurds
E-Kurd - 2021-07-06 18:11
QAMSHLO, Syrian Kurdistan,— A camp in Syrian Kurdistan (Rojava), northeast Syria, housing Islamic State group relatives saw at least eight murders in June, Kurdish forces said Tuesday, the latest of dozens of such killings since January. Kurdish forces ha ...
Iran sentences Kurdish woman political prisoner to 10 years in jail
Kurdistan Human Rights - 2021-07-06 02:01
Branch 1 of the Islamic Revolutionary Court of Orumiyeh has sentenced Kurdish woman political prisoner Sinur Tamara, a citizen of Turkey, to 10 years and one day in prison on charges of “membership in the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK)”. Reportedly, the c ...
Kurdish-led forces intensify crackdown on Islamic State cells in northeast Syria - Al-Monitor: The Pulse of the Middle East
Al Monitor - 2021-07-04 19:30
Syria, 10 years after the start of the civil war: the power of Bashar al Assad and the future of the Islamic State - Market Research Telecast
Marketresearchtelecast - 2021-07-04 13:27
Syria’s Kurds repatriate 20 Russian orphans of Islamic State families
E-Kurd - 2021-07-04 00:58
QAMISHLO, Syrian Kurdistan,— Syria’s Kurds on Saturday handed over 20 orphaned children born to parents linked to the Islamic State group to a Russian delegation for repatriation. Kurdish authorities in Syrian Kurdistan (Rojava), northeast Syria, hold tho ...
Syria’s AANES hands orphaned ISIS children to Russia
NPA Syria - 2021-07-03 16:16
The Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria (#AANES) repatriated the tenth batch of orphan children of the Islamic State (#ISIS) to an official Russian delegation in Qamishli. The post Syria’s AANES hands orphaned ISIS children to Russia appeare ...
Syrian Kurds seek help in rehabilitating Islamic State-linked minors
E-Kurd - 2021-07-02 22:21
QAMISHLO, Syrian Kurdistan,— Syria’s Kurds Friday urged international help to set up rehabilitation centres for minors linked to the Islamic State group, after charges they were holding “hundreds of children” in adult prisons. Acknowledging that some jiha ...
How women of Isis in Syrian camps are marrying way to freedom | Islamic State | The Guardian
The Guardian - 2021-07-02 16:10
Islamic State exploits economic downturn in Iraq, Syria, US envoy says - Al-Monitor: The Pulse of the Middle East
Al Monitor - 2021-07-02 07:03
US pushes France and UK to take Isis fighters back from Iraq and Syria | Islamic State | The Guardian
The Guardian - 2021-07-01 15:26
Landmine explosion leaves casualties in Syria’s Kobani
NPA Syria - 2021-06-30 15:22
A 16-year-old child lost his life and a young man was wounded in the explosion of a landmine left behind by the Islamic State (#ISIS) near a village in the western countryside of Tel Abyad (Gire Spi), north #Syria. The post Landmine explosion leaves casua ...
The economic cost of terrorism in Africa
AEI - 2021-06-30 00:09
Terrorists are costing Africa billions of dollars. This sum will only rise now that the Islamic State’s newest African affiliate has derailed the continent’s largest private investment. US policymakers and their African counterparts must overcome the poli ...
Exit of ISIS families from Syria’s Hawl Camp reduces risk of revival: AANES’ official
NPA Syria - 2021-06-29 17:57
The exit of Islamic State (ISIS) families from Hawl Camp reduces the risk of their revival, while the risk continues if the situation does not change, according to an official in the Autonomous Administration of North and East #Syria (AANES). The post Exi ...
Russia Strikes Islamic State Strongholds in Syria as Insurgency Gains Ground - WSJ
WSJ - 2021-06-29 07:16
Why the Next Islamic State 'Territorial Caliphate' Will Be in Africa | Military.com
Military - 2021-06-29 02:31
Slow response from countries with citizens in Hawl Camp: Syria’s Autonomous Administration
NPA Syria - 2021-06-28 17:07
RAQQA, Syria (North Press) – The response of countries whose citizens of Islamic State (ISIS) families are found in Hawl Camp, northeast Syria, is “slow,” an official in the Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria (AANES) said on Monday. Hawl Ca ...
Iraq sentences 9 to death over ISIS Camp Speicher massacre
E-Kurd - 2021-06-28 13:40
BAGHDAD,— The Criminal Court in Iraqi capital city issued on Sunday death sentences against nine people convicted of their participation in the Camp Speicher Massacre, one of the Islamic State’s (ISIS) most brutal crimes in Iraq. The Supreme Judicial Coun ...
Pope Francis urges forgiveness at site of churches ravaged by Islamic State - UPI.com
UPI - 2021-06-24 19:14
Iran IRGC forces kill a kolbar, injure another in Hawraman
Kurdistan Human Rights - 2021-06-24 02:01
Forces of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) have killed a kolbar named Fahmin Rostamzadeh and injured another on 23 June in the Tah Tah mountain pass in Hawraman region in Sarvabad, Kurdistan province. The IRGC forces opened fire on a group of ...
US seizes websites linked to Iranian Government
ANF - 2021-06-23 09:51
Thirty-three websites used by the Iranian Islamic Radio and Television Union, and three websites operated by Kataib Hezbollah, were seized, the Justice Department said in a release. ...
Zeynab Jalalian – Khoy Prison
Kurdistan Human Rights - 2021-06-23 02:02
Zeynab JalalianKurdish civilian from MakuDetention date: 26 February 2008Charged with: Membership of the Kurdistan Free Life Party (PJAK) and taking up arms against the Islamic Republic of IranSentence: Life sentenceCurrent status: Imprisoned in Khoy Pris ...
Islamic State Group Crimes Continue to Affect the Lives of Yazidis
Chiangraitimes - 2021-06-22 22:05
Islamic State revives religious police in northeast Syria - Al-Monitor: The Pulse of the Middle East
Al Monitor - 2021-06-22 06:49
Common enemy Islamic State draws Kurdish factions together - Los Angeles Times
Latimes - 2021-06-21 22:29
Young man found killed in Syria’s Deir ez-Zor countryside
NPA Syria - 2021-06-20 17:05
The eastern countryside of #Deir_ez_Zor has been witnessing kidnappings and killings, some of which are claimed by the Islamic State (#ISIS). #Syria The post Young man found killed in Syria’s Deir ez-Zor countryside appeared first on North press agency. ...
Security forces arrest ISIS members in Iraqi Diyala, al-Anbar
NPA Syria - 2021-06-20 12:56
ERBIL, Iraq (North Press) – On Sunday, Iraqi security forces arrested six members of the Islamic State Organization (ISIS) in the governorates of Diyala and al-Anbar. Detachments of the Federal Intelligence and Investigations Agency of the Ministry of Int ...
How Nordic Countries are Handling the Question of Repatriating Islamic State Women - Jamestown
Jamestown - 2021-06-19 02:45
A Family’s Journey from Cologne to the Islamic State - DER SPIEGEL
Spiegel - 2021-06-18 19:13
Yazidi Islamic State Victims Flee Turkish Bombings in Iraq
Breitbart - 2021-06-18 16:05
IRGC holds Kurdish activist in detention for five months, denies family contact
Kurdistan Human Rights - 2021-06-18 02:02
The Intelligence Organisation of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) has been keeping in detention the Kurdish activist Mohammad Houshangi for five months. Until now, there has been no information available on his situation. Forces of the Intelli ...
Detained Kurdish civilian imprisoned in Orumiyeh
Kurdistan Human Rights - 2021-06-18 02:02
Kurdish civilian Naeb Askari has been transferred to Orumiyeh Central Prison today after being detained in the detention centre of the Intelligence Organisation of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) for the past three months, sources told the Ku ...
France warns of Islamic State resurgence if US leaves Syria
RFI - 2021-06-18 01:38
Life after the Islamic State: A filmmaker's journey capturing the women caught between the eternal limbo of loss, redemption and the longing to go back home
Alaraby - 2021-06-17 23:23
What Islam says about Kurds? What ‘prophet’ Muhammad think of Kurds: Hadith
E-Kurd - 2021-06-17 13:46
Editorial | Ekurd.net – The Kurds are jinn… in the Islamic books of the Shiites and Sunnis – Kurds: The people whose shoes are made of hair. Kurds, a jinn generation that was revealed! – Prophetic hadith The Book “Al-Kafi” is considered one of the referen ...
Iran: IRGC shelling kills several people, sets orchards on fire in Sarvabad
Kurdistan Human Rights - 2021-06-17 02:02
A military convoy of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) forces comprised of local people, in cooperation with the IRGC’s Saberin Unit, have yesterday besieged and bombarded orchards in the areas near Sure Tu and Dezavan villages of Sarvabad, Kur ...
Stuck in Iraqi Kurdistan for decades, Iranian Kurdish refugees watching Iran vote with little hope for change
E-Kurd - 2021-06-17 01:46
HEWLÊR-Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan region,— Stuck in Iraqi Kurdistan region for decades due to a lack of documents, Kurdish refugees from neighbouring Iranian Kurdistan (Rojhelat) are watching elections in the Islamic republic this week with little hope for ch ...
Rojava security forces arrest 8 ISIS: SDF
Justice for Kurds - 2021-06-16 23:10
ERBIL, Kurdistan Region — Security forces in northeast Syria (Rojava) arrested eight Islamic State group (ISIS) members, including a leader who planned operations in Deir ez-Zor province, in multiple security operations over the past week, the Syrian Demo ...
Women in the Syrian Desert: between ISIS and the regime
NPA Syria - 2021-06-15 19:53
In #Syria’s Desert in the center of the country, women struggle to provide for their families and keep their children safe amid the spread of #ISIS cells, who threaten civilians into paying royalties and continue to enforce their version of Islamic law. T ...
From liberator to occupier? SDF rule in Syria after the Islamic State
Alaraby - 2021-06-15 19:42
The female Kurds fighting Islamic State | Reuters.com
Reuters - 2021-06-15 18:21
Jewish Groups, German Politicians Call on Government to End ‘Cooperation’ With Iranian-Backed Islamic Center in Hamburg | Jewish & Israel News Algemeiner.com
Algemeiner - 2021-06-13 06:38
Former political prisoner detained temporarily in Marivan Prison
Kurdistan Human Rights - 2021-06-12 02:04
Former political prisoner Barzan Mohammadi has been transferred to Marivan Prison on 8 June after being detained and interrogated for a day in the detention centre of the Intelligence Organisation of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) in Sarvaba ...
Refugee Camp for Families of Islamic State Fighters Nourishes Insurgency - WSJ
WSJ - 2021-06-11 23:44
IRGC intelligence forces detain a Kurdish civilian in Oshnavieh
Kurdistan Human Rights - 2021-06-11 02:01
The Intelligence Organisation of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) has summoned and detained a Kurdish civilian named Jafar Hassanpour in Oshnavieh on 9 June. The civilian has been taken to an undisclosed location, sources told the Kurdistan Hu ...
Turkey intensifies Syria campaign as Islamic State strikes Kurds | Reuters
Reuters - 2021-06-11 00:59
Iran sentences secretary of Kurdistan branch of National Unity Party to 10 months in jail
Kurdistan Human Rights - 2021-06-10 02:01
The four-year prison sentence of the secretary of the Kurdistan branch of the National Unity Party and lawyer Farhad Mohammadi, given by Branch 1 of the Islamic Revolutionary Court in Sanandaj in June 2020 on charges of “acting against national security”, ...
Iran releases prominent Kurdish labour activists
Kurdistan Human Rights - 2021-06-10 02:01
Kurdish labour activists Mahmoud Salehi and Osman Esmaeili have been released today from Saqqez Prison, 25 days after being arrested. In late May, Branch 1 of the Islamic Revolutionary Court of Saqqez sentenced Salehi and Esmaeili to three and six months ...